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Even in the absence of suspected cancer, some kidney diseases are best treated by kidney removal. Usually these kidneys are poorly-functioning and the other kidney functions fairly well. The function can be measured with a radiology test (nuclear kidney scan). The structure of the kidney, and often the cause of the damage, can be determined by a CT scan. Although most kidney cysts (fluid-filled sacs) do not require treatment, some cystic diseases (at times present at birth) render a kidney non-functional. Other causes of a non-functioning kidney include long-standing obstruction, vascular damage, high blood pressure, diabetes, recurrent infections, smoking, and severe kidney stone disease.